Cannabidiol—better known as CBD—is just one of more than 100 known phytocannabinoids that interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is responsible for restoring and maintaining our homeostasis, or in other words, our normal physical equilibrium.
The biochemical interactions of phytocannabionoids in the body is referred to as the “entourage effect.” Full spectrum, phytocannabinoid-rich (PCR) oil contains a variety of compounds, which interact with one another synergystically to unlock the full power and potential of the hemp plant. While there are specific health benefits attributed to isolated CBD, the vast majority of clinical research on cannabis suggests that the combination of key phytocannabinoids and terpenes working together is what truly offers the widest range of potential medicinal benefits.
We’re consumers too, and we believe that it’s important to know exactly what’s in a product before you buy it. Check out the key terms and definitions below:
Phytocannabinoids are molecules synthesized by plants.
There are 113 known phytocannabinoids in the cannabis plant, including CBD and CBG.
A major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the plant extract. Extensive research has demonstrated CBD to be a powerful antioxidant with the potential to treat age-related, inflammatory, and auto-immune disorders.
Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
The phytocannabinoid that is reponsible for the psychoactive effects of medical cannabis.
May contribute to the overall analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fungal effects of medical cannabis.
A non-psychoactive cannabinoid with analegisic properties that reportedly aids in sleep and appetite regulation.
Similar in structure as cannabidiol, CBDV has been reported to have powerful anti-convulsive effects.
A non-psychoactive precursor and regulator of various key phytocannabinoids.
CBGV has been shown to have great potential for treating cancer, as it displayed potential to inhibit the growth and division of leukaemic cells and caused a simultaneous arrest at all phases of the cell cycle.
A non-intoxicating minor cannabinoid, CBG is the chemical parent of THC and CBD.
Key Cannabis Terpenes
Terpenes are volatile, unsaturated hydrocarbons found in the essential oils of plants,
especially conifers and citrus trees.
Beta-caryophyllene is found in many plants such as Thai basils, cloves, cinnamon leaves and black pepper, and in minor quantities in lavender. Its aroma has been described as peppery, woody, and sometimes spicy. Caryophyllene is the only terpene known to interact with the endocannabinoid system (CB2).
Camphene emits pungent odors of damp woodlands and fir needles. Camphene may play a critical role in cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies have found camphene reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in rats with elevated levels of fat in their blood.
Delta-3-carene has a sweet, pungent scent. It is found naturally in many healthy, beneficial essential oils, including cypress oil, juniper berry oil, and fir needle essential oils. In higher concentrations, delta-3-carene can be a central nervous system depressant. It is often used to dry out excess body fluids, such as tears, mucus, and sweat.
Geraniol produces a sweet, delightful smell similar to roses. This makes geraniol a popular choice for many bath and body products. It is also known to be an effective mosquito repellant. Medically, geraniol shows promise in the treatment of neuropathy.
Humulene is also known as alpha-humulene and alpha-caryophyllene; an isomer of beta-caryophyllene. Humulene is found in hops, cannabis sativa strains, and Vietnamese coriander, and it’s what gives beer its distinct “hoppy” aroma. Humulene is considered to be anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. It has commonly been blended with beta-caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for inflammation. Humulene has been used for generations in Chinese medicine. It aids in weight loss by acting as an appetite suppressant.
Linalool is a monoterpenoid and has been described as having floral and lavender undertones. Varieties high in linalool promote calming, relaxing effects. Linalool has been used for centuries as a sleep aid. Linalool lessens the anxious emotions provoked by pure THC, thus making it helpful in the treatment of both psychosis and anxiety. Studies also suggest that linalool boosts the immune system, that it can significantly reduce lung inflammation, and can restore cognitive and emotional function, making it useful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
As the name suggests, varieties high in limonene have strong citrusy smells like oranges, lemons, and limes. Strains high in limonene promote a general uplift in mood and attitude. This citrusy terpene is the major constituent in citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper, and peppermint, as well as in several pine needle oils. Limonene is highly absorbed by inhalation and quickly appears in the bloodstream. Clinical studies have shown that it assists in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and other body tissue.
Myrcene’s aroma has been described as musky, earthy, herbal—akin to cloves. A high myrcene level in cannabis (usually above 0.5%) results in the well-known “couch-lock” effect of classic Indica medicinal cannabis strains. Myrcene is found in oil of hops, citrus fruits, bay leaves, eucalyptus, wild thyme, lemon grass and many other plants. Myrcene has some very special medicinal properties, including lowering the resistance across the blood to brain barrier, allowing itself and many other chemicals to cross the barrier easier and more quickly.
Phellandrene is described as pepperminty, with a slight scent of citrus. Phellandrene has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat digestive disorders. It is one of the main compounds in turmeric leaf oil, which is used to prevent and treat systemic fungal infections.
Pinene has distinctive aromas of pine and fir. Pinene is one of the principal monoterpenes that is important physiologically in both plants and animals. It tends to react with other chemicals, forming a variety of other terpenes (like limonene) and other compounds. Pinene is used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory, expectorant, bronchodilator, and local antiseptic. Clinical studies indicate that the effects of THC may be lessened if mixed with pinene.
Pulegone is a minor component of cannabis. Higher concentrations of pulegone are found in rosemary. Rosemary breaks down acetylcholine in the brain, allowing nerve cells to communicate more effectively with one another. An ethnopharmacology study indicates pulegone may have significant sedative and fever-reducing properties. It may also alleviate the side effects of short-term memory loss sometimes associated with long term use of THC.
The aroma of terpineol has been compared to lilacs and flower blossoms. Terpineol is often found in cannabis varieties that have high pinene levels, which unfortunately mask the fragrant aromas of terpineol. Terpineol, specifically alpha-terpineol, is known to have calming, relaxing effects. It also exhibits antibiotic, antioxidant, and antimalarial properties.
Terpinolene is a common component of sage and rosemary and is found in the oil derived from Monterey cypress. Its largest use in the United States is in soaps, perfumes, and insect repellent. Terpinolene is known to have a piney aroma with slight herbal and floral nuances, and has been found to be a central nervous system depressant used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Our phytocannabinoid-rich hemp oil has a true full spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes, and very low amounts of Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (less than 0.3% THC). Our distillation process produces the highest quality oil in the world by removing all impurities, including chlorophyll, lipids, waxes, and other destabilizing compounds. By using only completely distilled PCR hemp oil, our products are purer, more stable, and have a longer shelf life than other oils, tinctures, and gelcaps on the market today.